Limited notions of gender, in this case femininity, encourage sexual violence in society.  Pink makes a commentary about shows how media affects viewers, more specifically little girls.  Throughout the video she demonstrates how the media portrays women as flat characters with little to no substance.  Pink then goes on to point out that little girls are bombarded with hundreds of images of skinny, large breasted women whose shop all day for clothes that leaves little to the imagination.  Instead of having positive role models, girls are taught that a woman’s job is to look good in order to get a man. 
                These types of ideas teach both girls and boys that women are objects that can be replaced or remodeled in order to meet the visual standards of men.  Children mimic what they see because they learn through modeling (as we can see when the little girl flips her hair, imitating the girls on TV).  Pink’s video shows how this becomes a cycle that feeds into itself, becoming more prevalent.  This video is an attempt to break the cycle and create a new, broader image of femininity that is about empowerment and not just limited eye candy.
This advertisement is an example of how the media creates limited notions of masculinity. Specifically according to this ad, to be a man is to be someone who shoots guns, likes adventure, runs around in the jungle, and demonstrates aggression. Although this is not an example of sexual violence, this is a piece of the media that promotes gender stereotypes that ultimately promote sexual violence and rape in today's culture. This advertisement encourages males to act in such aggressive and stereotypical ways, and those who don't often risk being called "gay" or "girly." 

One Night Stand

The beginning of this video clip presents the idea that having sex with females is just a game in which you can win if "you play your cards right." Dane Cook demonstrates one of the limited notions of masculinity which involves males being sexually active and dominating. Likewise, he degrades women by giving the impression that they are merely things to win over and have sex with. He also refers to a group of girls as "sluts."


Who is portrayed as the violent character?
A.     Amy
B.     Sheldon

Was there consent from both parties?
A.     Yes
B.     No

Where does this fall on the "Sexual Violence Continuum"?
A.     Mutually consenting touch

B.     Unfair pressure and touch
C.     Sexual coercion
D.     Sexual aggression
E.     Sexual assault

Who is the dominant figure?
A.     Amy
B.     Sheldon

             As much as Sheldon and Amy negotiate to get to a point where they can both be happy with the result, we can see that Sheldon is clearly uncomfortable.  His stiffness shows that he is just not into it.  Even though people usually assume that it’s the guy who want to take it further and the girl who holds back, the roles are reversed here.  Had it been the other way around and Sheldon had been pushing Amy, this would be the plot for an afterschool special.  The point is, sexual violence doesn’t just happen to girls, it can happen to guys too.  Its important to note that there is a fine line here and sometimes the situation may seem a little murky.
             There is are no lies, deceitful promises, coercion, manipulation, or threats.  Both people agreed to the compromise, which makes this consensual (although kind of awkward).  


Who is portrayed as the violent character?
A.      Him
B.      Her

Was there consent for their sexual behavior?
A.      Yes
B.      No

Where does this go on the continuum on the “Sexual Violence Continuum”?
A.      Mutually consenting touch
B.      Unfair pressure and touch
C.      Sexual coercion
D.      Sexual aggression
E.      Sexual assault

Who is portrayed as the dominant figure?
A.      Him
B.      Her

In this video, the female is portrayed as the dominant figure who is actually punishing the male for being a womanizer. Britney Spears acts as the aggressor as she throws the male around and displays violent behavior towards him. This piece of media sends the message that it  is acceptable for females to act sexually aggressive towards men because they deserve it or they should be able handle it. However, this is not true. Males can be victims of sexual assault just as easily as females and just because they are usually the aggressors and the more dominating force is society does not make them any more deserving of violent treatment.

I Love the Way You Lie- Eminem

Who is portrayed as the violent character?
A.      Him
B.      Her

Was there consent for their sexual behavior?
A.      Yes
B.      No

Where does this go on the continuum on the “Sexual Violence Continuum”?
A.      Mutually consenting touch
B.      Unfair pressure and touch
C.      Sexual coercion
D.      Sexual aggression
E.      Sexual assault

Who is portrayed as the dominant figure?
A.      Him
B.      Her

Many times a victim fears reporting sexual abuse due to dependence on the perpetrator.  The victim could also be afraid for their safety and security.  This video is a display of pure, violent sexual assault.  The victim (the female) is constantly shown as the sex symbol throughout the music video.  She is beaten and controlled by Eminem.  Eminem took his relationship misconceptions of this song and music video to the top of the charts in 2010.  The exposure of the violence in this video may lead some to believe that violence and rape is acceptable.  We must educate and give society that rape is not acceptable and constantly be making strides to preventing a society that accepts rape.  Have you ever witnessed violence in a relationship similar to what is shown in this music video?

Defending Rap

Sexual violence is a common theme and has become increasingly accepted in our culture.  Most of us are familiar with comedian, Chris Rock.  In the clip provided above, Rock creates his own song, “slap her with a dick,” a clear demonstration of sexual violence.  Instead of noting the violence in the song, the audience laughs at the woman when she responds, “he ain’t talkin’ ‘bout me.”  As response to this video, several people created their own versions of the song Rock made up, showing that “if the beat’s alright, she will dance all night” regardless of what is actually being said.  This leads to a cycle because as the masses become desensitized to the violence, the media companies are allowed to increase the violence to catch public attention, feeding the cycle.

What if Education Prevented these Crimes??

Jerry Sandusky is currently the world's biggest, most famous, rapist.  Sandusky went from being named the assistant college coach of the year in 1986 and 1999 and to being accused as one of America's biggest criminal.  As he claims his innocence and admits of showering with "young boys" at the same time, the public is in disgust by Sandusky's actions.  The problem is that uneducation of rape and our culture allowed Sandusky to continue his streak of raping young boys.  Sandusky's known fifteen year streak of sexual abuse of young boys is being heavily investigated.

Could this have been prevented? Why is there a culture of silence when someone sees rape?  Why does our society turn an eye to such a violent and unethical act?

The scary thought is Sandusky's case is gaining fame and exposure, but this is probably happening somewhere as I am writing this blog post.   Everyone should understand the harm rape has on an individual's life.  If our society, the janitor, and the graduate assistant were a little more educated, maybe Sandusky's crime stops there?  We must always be on the lookout to stop rape.  Listen in on the video.  List why you think Jerry Sandusky's argument for innocence is non-sense.

Victoria Secret Time Machine

Television ratings sky rocket, as the much anticipated Victoria Secret angels walk down the run way.   The Victoria Secret Fashion show's popularity has become more "exposed" and more popular.  As our society has progressed, so has the exposure of women as objects.  More and more skin continue to show because more and more people believe that "sex" sells.  In the 1995 Victoria Secret Fashion Show, we see a very modest display of women and their lingerie compared to the lavish wings and sexy new outfits of the 2011 angels. 

The eyes of the famous and the non-famous draw upon the Victoria Secret models as they expose their bodies on the runway.  Quickly, both men and women fantasize and gain a huge misunderstanding of sexuality.  Women believe that they must look like these models to please men.  While men crave and desire for their women to look like these "done-up" supermodels.  The reality is the appearance of these women is naturally unrealistic.  We must not promote this show because it is treating women as objects and promoting a misconception of sexuality. Take note in the difference of the two films...How do you think sex in our society has changed?  Does it promote a rape culture?

Man Down

Who is portrayed as the violent character?
A.      Him
B.      Her

Was there consent for their sexual behavior?
A.      Yes
B.      No

Where does this go on the continuum on the “Sexual Violence Continuum”?
A.      Mutually consenting touch
B.      Unfair pressure and touch
C.      Sexual coercion
D.      Sexual aggression
E.      Sexual assault

Who is portrayed as the dominant figure?
A.      Him
B.      Her

This video demonstrates sexual aggression and its ultimate effects. The man approaches the female, Rihanna, and begins to feel her up. Immediately, however she shows her disapproval by pushing the man off of her. The man's persistence and eventual aggression toward Rihanna (pinning her up against the wall, holding her down, touching her as she tries to get away) presents the perfect example of sexual aggression, which one can assume ultimately led to sexual assault in this instance. This type of sexual touch and violence is unfair and wrong. Clearly, the female did not want to be touched in that way, but her wishes were not respected nor did they matter one bit to the male figure. Consent is a major deal and should always be given in every sexual encounter. In this case, consent was not given leading to the emotionally devastating assault upon Rihanna, which then influenced further violence in the form of murder. Sexual assault is damaging to the mind and the soul, not just the body. Males should respect females' bodies and wishes. In addition, this video demonstrates how the media, specifically music video producers, support a rape culture and normalize the mistreatment of females. Videos like this show that men are suppose to dominate women and fulfill their desires even if that means going against what the female wants. Society must resist these messages and create a healthy understanding of sexual touch (covered under mutually consenting touch).


Who is portrayed as the violent character?
A.      Him
B.      Her

Was there consent for their sexual behavior?
A.      Yes
B.      No

Where does this go on the continuum on the “Sexual Violence Continuum”?
A.      Mutually consenting touch
B.      Unfair pressure and touch
C.      Sexual coercion
D.      Sexual aggression
E.      Sexual assault
F.      It progresses

Who is portrayed as the dominant figure?
A.      Him
B.      Her

My thoughts:
This is an example of how unfair pressures and touching can be a sort of gateway behavior for sexual violence.  He admits to knowing what it is that she wants to hear, and uses that to get her to sleep with him.  The whole time he admits that he has no intention of keeping any of the promises he makes, and everything he says is for the benefit of getting laid, but that’s all just manipulation.  But it’s ok, she’s a “ho” anyways, right?  But really, it does not matter how many other guys she has been with, she has a right to choose who she has sex with keeping in mind all the facts--not based on the lies--regardless of however many other guys she has said yes to. 
This becomes sexual aggression when he starts spitting out lines like “I’ll slap you off that barstool…Leave handprints all across you.”  These lyrics clearly portray the progression from manipulation, which falls under unfair pressure and touch, to sexual aggression, where he threatens to leave her with “two backhands.”  By presenting Eminem as this player who can get all the girls, the media normalizes the violence and makes it seem as though that’s what girls want since they keep coming back for more.  It does not take a genius to figure out that it’s not true, but with enough repetition, society finally gives in and submits to the pressure, allowing this to spiral.

Sexual Violence Continuum

Sexual violence is a broad term; it covers a whole continuum of behaviors.  That is why we explain what defines different types of touching, and where they fall on the continuum.

Mutually Consenting Touch
The first type of touching is mutual consenting touch.  This refers to touching that both people want and freely choose; the key word being freely.  This means no manipulation, coercion, or threatening can be involved (i.e. no alcohol or drug can be used to “loosen up” a person). 
Both people have to agree that this is what they want, and have talked about how far they want to go.  As long as the boundaries are agreed upon, and adhered to, it’s fine.  The moment someone says no, it stops there, no worries.
In many cases there will be one person trying to persuade the other to go further.  As long as this persuasion does not include lies, manipulation, or deceitful promises, it’s fine.  Just be aware that if the other person still says no, it stops there.

Unfair Pressures and Touch
Here is where sexual violation starts; when one person is using the other.  This part is a little sneaky but you still have to be aware that it’s not ok.  This involves manipulation, such as:
  1. Saying what you think your partner wants to hear, even though you know it is not true.  For example, saying “I love you” just to get in his/her pants.
  2. Promising to do something in return, knowing that you have no intention of keeping that promise.  Saying, “I promise to take out the trash,” while in your head saying “riiiight” is also unfair. 
  3. Asking over and over again.  “Can we have sex?”, “how about now?”, “how ‘bout now?”, “and now?” It’s not only annoying, it’s also sexual violence.

Rule of thumb: if the person says no twice, just stop.

Sexual Coercion
This is a bit more noticeable, but it can still be difficult to notice.  It’s when they start using threats, although not physically harmful.  Threats may sound something like, “If you don’t, I’ll…
  • Find someone else”
  • Tell everyone you did anyway”
  • Break up with you”

It does NOT include “I’ll kill you”

Sexual Aggression
These next two are less sneaky, but some parts can still be pretty sneaky.
Grabbing people in a “teasing” way to show them you like them.
Not so sneaky:
Things to consider: they may not be saying no, but that’s because no one asked.  That does not make it ok to touch. 

Sexual Assault
This is what we usually hear about, which is any form of sex that is forced.  It can be any kind of sex; it’s not just limited to vaginal.  Stranger or friend, paid or not, agreed upon or not, the moment one person says stop, it should be over.  If one partner decides to continue having sex when the other is not ok with it, it’s sexual assault. 

Mr. and Mrs. Smith...What do you think of this scene???

“Your aim is as bad as your cooking sweetheart and that’s saying something.”  Brad Pitt

1.  Who was portrayed as the violent character?
a.  Brad Pitt
b.  Angelina Jolie
c.  Both
2.  Was there consent for their sexual behavior?
a.  Yes
b.  No

3.  Where does this go on the continuum in the "Sexual Reference Sheet?"
a.  Mutually consenting touch
b.  Unfair pressure and touch
c.  Sexual coercion
d.  sexual aggression
e.  sexual assault

4.  Who was portrayed as the dominant figure?
a.  Brad Pitt
b.  Angelina Jolie

I’m sure many of you have seen this scene...It is quite interesting, and particularly unorthodox compared to what we usually see directed in Hollywood.   No doubt, this scene had many viewers on the edge of their seats; but it also has numerous false implications.  We must raise a red flag in understanding these implications and revert our thinking to avoid a rape culture.  Angelina Jolie does a tremendous job of playing the macho, well equip lady, who is ready for an aggressive battle.  Although she seems like she holds her own throughout the scene, its very evident that the mastermind’s of the movie wanted to show superiority with Brad Pitt.  Throughout the scene, Angelina is constantly portrayed as a sex symbol. 
This scene is an extreme case of sexual aggression.  Although many are entertained by the couples, high-forced, hate-love relationships; clearly, it is sending the wrong message throughout society.  It is saying that aggression and violence is accepted inside the household, and that’s not right.  We must take notice to the misconceptions within our media to continue to begin a movement, to prevent the rape culture we live in. 


·         5 key norms
o    Power over others
§  A society of haves and have nots
o    Violence
§  It is acceptable and is everywhere
o    Limited notions of masculinity
§  Boys will be boys
o    Limited notion of feminity
§  Oppression and objectification of women
o    Privacy and silence
§  violence against women is a private matter. 
·         Continuum of sexual aggression
o    Out of oppression, you have violence.
o    Starts with gender stereotyping, sexual jokes and goes to all the different forms of sexual assault. 
·         What we know
o    1 in 6 women and 1 in 33 men reported experiencing sexual victimization during their lifetime. 
o    Sexual assault is a public health concern.  
·         Victim/survivor
o    The person whom the violence is inflicted
o    These are labels, some people are not ready to carry these labels.  IDing someone as this needs their consent. 
·         Perpetrator/”Pusher”
o    The person who conflicts the violence. 
·         Sexual violence
o    Is any sexual act that if forced against someone’s will
·         There are 4 categories of sexual violence
o    A completed act of penetration- any penetration of the vagina, anus, or other body orifice by any object
o    Attempted act of penetration
o    Abusive sexual contact- intentional touching
o    Non-contact sexual abuse- voyeurism, exhibitionism, verbal or behavioral sexual harassment, threats or sexual violence, taking or posting sexual photos. 
·         Types of sexual assault
o    Rape by criminal law vs civil law
o    Sexual abuse of a child
o    Incest
o    Stranger rape
o    Intimate (date) rape
o    Drug Facilitated sexual assault
o    Spousal rape
o    Group rape
o    Gang rape
o    Rape as a hate crime
o    Rape as a war crime
o    Genocidal rape. 
·         Consent
o    Consent is present when all partners have agreed to a sexual activity without the presences of force, fraud, lies, or coercion.
o    To give fully informed consent, you must have:
§  All the information
§  The power to make a choice( cant make a choice as a child, under the influence, unconscious, not having cognitive capabilities of consent, treat to your life)
§  The power to say no
§  The power to change your mind
§  Mutually consenting touch, unfair pressure and touch, sexual coercion, sexual aggression, sexual assault.
·         Consequences of sexual violence
o    Rupture of personal, emotional, and sexual boundaries
§  Inability to maintain personal relationships
o    Feeling deep, inexplicable guilt and shame
o    Engaging is risky sexual behavior
§  Unintended pregnancies
§  STD
o    Depression
o    Suicide attempts
o    Eating disorders
o    Drug and alcohol abuse
o    Various medical problems-anxiety, headaches, deep disturbances, stomach aches
o    Inability to succeed at work
o    Post traumatic stress disorder PTSD
§  Rape trauma syndrome
·         Rape Trauma Syndrome
o    Acute Phase(few days/weeks)
§  Survivor experiences a complete disruption of their life
o    Emotional responses
§  Shock/disbelief
§  Fear
§  Helplessness, loss of control
§  Repression, denial
§  Shame, self blame, guilt, humiliation, degradation
§  Anger, revenge, retaliation
§  Depression
§  Loss of self-esteem, altered self concept
§  Anxiety
§  Irritability
§  Thought disturbances
o    Physical Reactions
§  Changes in sleep
o    Denial Phase
§  Survivors preoccupy themselves with a variety of activities in an attempt to avoid thoughts and or feelings associated with the trauma.
§  Avoidance and repression of anything associated with the assault
§  Want to return to normal life
§  Ongoing feelings of depression
§  Social withdrawal
§  Flashbacks, nightmares
§  Loss of self esteem and sexual desire
§  Regain sense of control
§  Relinquishes guilt and blame.
o    Reorganization Phase
§  This stage begins with the survivors desire to process the rape
§  Previous coping skills have been unsuccessful
·         Outwardly seek help
·         Find options and imply options
·         Redeveloping a support system
·         Talks about the event and the effect on their life. 
·         Reproductive Coercion
o    Is a way of maintaining power and control that uses threats or acts of violence against a partner’s reproductive health or reproductive decision making. 
o    Reproductive coercion is a form of intimate partner violence that can be physical, sexual, psychological, and or economic. 
o    “Survivors of domestic violence don’t always recognize reproductive coercion as part of the power and control
·         3 elements
o    Pregnancy pressure
§  Involves behaviors that are intended to pressure a partner to become pregnant when she does not wish to be pregnant. 
§  Goes with birth control sabotage. 
o    Birth control sabotage
§  Active interference with contraceptive method. 
o    Pregnancy coercion
§  Involves threats or acts of violence if a woman does not comply with the perpetrators wish to continue or terminate the pregnancy
§  Its all about power and control
§  Stats      
·         1 in 5 had experience coercion
o    Of women reporting pregnancy coercion, 74% also reported physical or sexual domestic violence
·         1 in 7 had experience because sabotage. 
·         40% of abused women who are currently pregnant report that their pregnancy was unintended compared to 8% of non abused women
·         Adolescent girls who experience
·         Under high levels of fear for abuse, women with high STI knowledge were less likely to use condoms consistently than non-fearful women with low STI knowledge. 
·         Teens who experience physical dating violence were 2.8 times more likely to fear the perceived consequences of negotiating condom use than non abused teens. 
*Information given from Rice University, UNIV 219 Powerpoint