·         5 key norms
o    Power over others
§  A society of haves and have nots
o    Violence
§  It is acceptable and is everywhere
o    Limited notions of masculinity
§  Boys will be boys
o    Limited notion of feminity
§  Oppression and objectification of women
o    Privacy and silence
§  violence against women is a private matter. 
·         Continuum of sexual aggression
o    Out of oppression, you have violence.
o    Starts with gender stereotyping, sexual jokes and goes to all the different forms of sexual assault. 
·         What we know
o    1 in 6 women and 1 in 33 men reported experiencing sexual victimization during their lifetime. 
o    Sexual assault is a public health concern.  
·         Victim/survivor
o    The person whom the violence is inflicted
o    These are labels, some people are not ready to carry these labels.  IDing someone as this needs their consent. 
·         Perpetrator/”Pusher”
o    The person who conflicts the violence. 
·         Sexual violence
o    Is any sexual act that if forced against someone’s will
·         There are 4 categories of sexual violence
o    A completed act of penetration- any penetration of the vagina, anus, or other body orifice by any object
o    Attempted act of penetration
o    Abusive sexual contact- intentional touching
o    Non-contact sexual abuse- voyeurism, exhibitionism, verbal or behavioral sexual harassment, threats or sexual violence, taking or posting sexual photos. 
·         Types of sexual assault
o    Rape by criminal law vs civil law
o    Sexual abuse of a child
o    Incest
o    Stranger rape
o    Intimate (date) rape
o    Drug Facilitated sexual assault
o    Spousal rape
o    Group rape
o    Gang rape
o    Rape as a hate crime
o    Rape as a war crime
o    Genocidal rape. 
·         Consent
o    Consent is present when all partners have agreed to a sexual activity without the presences of force, fraud, lies, or coercion.
o    To give fully informed consent, you must have:
§  All the information
§  The power to make a choice( cant make a choice as a child, under the influence, unconscious, not having cognitive capabilities of consent, treat to your life)
§  The power to say no
§  The power to change your mind
§  Mutually consenting touch, unfair pressure and touch, sexual coercion, sexual aggression, sexual assault.
·         Consequences of sexual violence
o    Rupture of personal, emotional, and sexual boundaries
§  Inability to maintain personal relationships
o    Feeling deep, inexplicable guilt and shame
o    Engaging is risky sexual behavior
§  Unintended pregnancies
§  STD
o    Depression
o    Suicide attempts
o    Eating disorders
o    Drug and alcohol abuse
o    Various medical problems-anxiety, headaches, deep disturbances, stomach aches
o    Inability to succeed at work
o    Post traumatic stress disorder PTSD
§  Rape trauma syndrome
·         Rape Trauma Syndrome
o    Acute Phase(few days/weeks)
§  Survivor experiences a complete disruption of their life
o    Emotional responses
§  Shock/disbelief
§  Fear
§  Helplessness, loss of control
§  Repression, denial
§  Shame, self blame, guilt, humiliation, degradation
§  Anger, revenge, retaliation
§  Depression
§  Loss of self-esteem, altered self concept
§  Anxiety
§  Irritability
§  Thought disturbances
o    Physical Reactions
§  Changes in sleep
o    Denial Phase
§  Survivors preoccupy themselves with a variety of activities in an attempt to avoid thoughts and or feelings associated with the trauma.
§  Avoidance and repression of anything associated with the assault
§  Want to return to normal life
§  Ongoing feelings of depression
§  Social withdrawal
§  Flashbacks, nightmares
§  Loss of self esteem and sexual desire
§  Regain sense of control
§  Relinquishes guilt and blame.
o    Reorganization Phase
§  This stage begins with the survivors desire to process the rape
§  Previous coping skills have been unsuccessful
·         Outwardly seek help
·         Find options and imply options
·         Redeveloping a support system
·         Talks about the event and the effect on their life. 
·         Reproductive Coercion
o    Is a way of maintaining power and control that uses threats or acts of violence against a partner’s reproductive health or reproductive decision making. 
o    Reproductive coercion is a form of intimate partner violence that can be physical, sexual, psychological, and or economic. 
o    “Survivors of domestic violence don’t always recognize reproductive coercion as part of the power and control
·         3 elements
o    Pregnancy pressure
§  Involves behaviors that are intended to pressure a partner to become pregnant when she does not wish to be pregnant. 
§  Goes with birth control sabotage. 
o    Birth control sabotage
§  Active interference with contraceptive method. 
o    Pregnancy coercion
§  Involves threats or acts of violence if a woman does not comply with the perpetrators wish to continue or terminate the pregnancy
§  Its all about power and control
§  Stats      
·         1 in 5 had experience coercion
o    Of women reporting pregnancy coercion, 74% also reported physical or sexual domestic violence
·         1 in 7 had experience because sabotage. 
·         40% of abused women who are currently pregnant report that their pregnancy was unintended compared to 8% of non abused women
·         Adolescent girls who experience
·         Under high levels of fear for abuse, women with high STI knowledge were less likely to use condoms consistently than non-fearful women with low STI knowledge. 
·         Teens who experience physical dating violence were 2.8 times more likely to fear the perceived consequences of negotiating condom use than non abused teens. 
*Information given from Rice University, UNIV 219 Powerpoint

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