· 5 key norms
o Power over others
§ A society of haves and have nots
o Limited notions of masculinity
§ Boys will be boys
o Limited notion of feminity
§ Oppression and objectification of women
o Privacy and silence
§ violence against women is a private matter.
· Continuum of sexual aggression
o Out of oppression, you have violence.
o Starts with gender stereotyping, sexual jokes and goes to all the different forms of sexual assault.
· What we know
o 1 in 6 women and 1 in 33 men reported experiencing sexual victimization during their lifetime.
o Sexual assault is a public health concern.
o The person whom the violence is inflicted
o These are labels, some people are not ready to carry these labels. IDing someone as this needs their consent.
o The person who conflicts the violence.
· Sexual violence
o Is any sexual act that if forced against someone’s will
· There are 4 categories of sexual violence
o A completed act of penetration- any penetration of the vagina, anus, or other body orifice by any object
o Attempted act of penetration
o Abusive sexual contact- intentional touching
o Non-contact sexual abuse- voyeurism, exhibitionism, verbal or behavioral sexual harassment, threats or sexual violence, taking or posting sexual photos.
· Types of sexual assault
o Rape by criminal law vs civil law
o Sexual abuse of a child
o Stranger rape
o Intimate (date) rape
o Drug Facilitated sexual assault
o Spousal rape
o Group rape
o Gang rape
o Rape as a hate crime
o Rape as a war crime
o Genocidal rape.
o Consent is present when all partners have agreed to a sexual activity without the presences of force, fraud, lies, or coercion.
o To give fully informed consent, you must have:
§ All the information
§ The power to make a choice( cant make a choice as a child, under the influence, unconscious, not having cognitive capabilities of consent, treat to your life)
§ The power to say no
§ The power to change your mind
§ Mutually consenting touch, unfair pressure and touch, sexual coercion, sexual aggression, sexual assault.
· Consequences of sexual violence
o Rupture of personal, emotional, and sexual boundaries
§ Inability to maintain personal relationships
o Feeling deep, inexplicable guilt and shame
o Engaging is risky sexual behavior
§ Unintended pregnancies
o Suicide attempts
o Eating disorders
o Drug and alcohol abuse
o Various medical problems-anxiety, headaches, deep disturbances, stomach aches
o Inability to succeed at work
o Post traumatic stress disorder PTSD
§ Rape trauma syndrome
· Rape Trauma Syndrome
o Acute Phase(few days/weeks)
§ Survivor experiences a complete disruption of their life
o Emotional responses
§ Helplessness, loss of control
§ Repression, denial
§ Shame, self blame, guilt, humiliation, degradation
§ Anger, revenge, retaliation
§ Loss of self-esteem, altered self concept
§ Thought disturbances
o Physical Reactions
§ Changes in sleep
o Denial Phase
§ Survivors preoccupy themselves with a variety of activities in an attempt to avoid thoughts and or feelings associated with the trauma.
§ Avoidance and repression of anything associated with the assault
§ Want to return to normal life
§ Ongoing feelings of depression
§ Social withdrawal
§ Flashbacks, nightmares
§ Loss of self esteem and sexual desire
§ Regain sense of control
§ Relinquishes guilt and blame.
o Reorganization Phase
§ This stage begins with the survivors desire to process the rape
§ Previous coping skills have been unsuccessful
· Outwardly seek help
· Find options and imply options
· Redeveloping a support system
· Talks about the event and the effect on their life.
· Reproductive Coercion
o Is a way of maintaining power and control that uses threats or acts of violence against a partner’s reproductive health or reproductive decision making.
o Reproductive coercion is a form of intimate partner violence that can be physical, sexual, psychological, and or economic.
o “Survivors of domestic violence don’t always recognize reproductive coercion as part of the power and control
· 3 elements
o Pregnancy pressure
§ Involves behaviors that are intended to pressure a partner to become pregnant when she does not wish to be pregnant.
§ Goes with birth control sabotage.
o Birth control sabotage
§ Active interference with contraceptive method.
o Pregnancy coercion
§ Involves threats or acts of violence if a woman does not comply with the perpetrators wish to continue or terminate the pregnancy
§ Its all about power and control
· 1 in 5 had experience coercion
o Of women reporting pregnancy coercion, 74% also reported physical or sexual domestic violence
· 1 in 7 had experience because sabotage.
· 40% of abused women who are currently pregnant report that their pregnancy was unintended compared to 8% of non abused women
· Adolescent girls who experience
· Under high levels of fear for abuse, women with high STI knowledge were less likely to use condoms consistently than non-fearful women with low STI knowledge.
· Teens who experience physical dating violence were 2.8 times more likely to fear the perceived consequences of negotiating condom use than non abused teens.
*Information given from Rice University, UNIV 219 Powerpoint